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S. Domhoff (2003) argued that these categories are valid because there are only a few basic human emotions: “anger, fear, love, joy and sadness” (p. 70). One of the most important aspects of the evolutionary theory is that it deals with systems, structures, adaptations and change as part of social stratification. At the very least, negatively toned dreams are more often remembered than are positively toned dreams, and this fact must contribute to the ways in which dreams function to affect waking mood and behavior. Lisa M. Grant School Psychologist, Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Maryland, USA Correspondence Lme453@msn.com & Pauline Prince Neuropsychologist, Severn, Maryland, USA. Evolutionary theory holds that an organism's traits change over long periods of time to adapt in ways that enhance the organism's fitness for survival. More recently, several researchers (Isles and Holland, 2005; Kozlov et al., 2007; Liljelund, Handforth, Homanics, and Olsen, 2005) have elaborated the role of genomic imprinting and (Champagne, 2008; Champagne and Meaney, 2007) other epigenetic mechanisms in the interaction between mother and offspring in the postnatal period. Through DNA methylation, effects of maternal behavior change the oxytocin-estrogen interactions, estrogen receptor levels in the hypothalamus, and oxytocin receptor binding in the hypothalamus (Champagne, 2008; Champagne and Meaney, 2007). The strengths and weaknesses of this model are then evaluated in terms of its consonance with measurable neurological and biological properties of dreaming, its fit within the tenets of evolutionary theories of dreams, and its alignment with evolutionary concepts of cooperation and spirituality. Watson’s Theory of Human Caring Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring is a middle range theory that contributes to the existential side of nursing. Basically, this means that the development of animal embryos follows the evolutionary development of the species. By "the theory of evolution" I mean to signify the notion that new, superior species arise through the processes of genetic variation and natural selection. The Myth of the Recapitulation Theory German biologist Ernst Haeckel proposed in 1866 that “ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny”. The "strengths and weaknesses" language was included in the curriculum standards in Texas to appease creationists when the SBOE first mandated the teaching of evolution in the late 1980s. Barrett posited that in addition to providing images for rituals and religious ceremonies, dreams also provided other useful images: “Modern hunter-gatherers, and less industrialized societies in general, often teach explicitly that dreams can provide inspiration or solve problems” (p. 147). Hans H. Gerth and C. Wright MiHs (New York: Oxford University Press, 1946), pp. (p. 16). Indiana University offers one of the premier graduate programs of study in evolutionary biology. Also some Christians believe that it shows an ever-working God, so there is still space for a creator God. Some qualities, taken to the extreme, can become weaknesses. One type of costly signal was discussed above: the emotional handicapping that occurs because of the predominance of negative emotions in dreams, which McNamara posited increases cooperation in social interactions. You can be signed in via any or all of the methods shown below at the same time. Strengths and Weaknesses Strengths: We now have a clear set of established mid-level properties of human language, and a clear set of established tests. elaborate Watson’s Theory of Human Caring and elucidate its strengths and weaknesses in the acute care setting. At least 30–50% of the population exhibit and report a chronic experience of negative emotionality” (p. 37). The other type of costly signal is the production of images that are used to construct religious ceremonies and rituals in cultures that view dreams as sacred. Contrary to what seems to make sense, the handicap actually functions to enhance the social interactions of the dreamer, thus enhancing the dreamer's fitness as a member of the group. 806 8067 22, Registered office: International House, Queens Road, Brighton, BN1 3XE, Strengths and Weaknesses of the Cosmological Argument, See all Religious, Moral and Philosophical Studies resources », See all Christianity: Belief and Science resources », Should Creationism be taught in schools? … Showing an even greater difference, dreamer-initiated aggression occurred in 52% of the REM dreams and in zero of the NREM dreams. McNamara's (2004) theory that residual negative affect from dreams creates a costly signal that enhances cooperation was based on the preponderance of negative emotions in dreams; it would then follow that the majority of people experience these negative moods. McNamara and Szent-Imrey (2007) described the type of information that is conveyed by these signals: “Like any other mood state, these dream-related dispositional and mood states, we claim, can be ‘read’ by observers as informational about the internal states and quality of the dreamer” (p. 30). Clearly, REM poses a risk to human health and is thus costly from a biological perspective, a feature that McNamara used to associate REM sleep and dreams with costly signaling. Both of these maternally imprinted/paternally expressed genes enhance the growth of the infant and influence maternal care through expression of oxytocin neurons in the hypothalamus. Although this seems plausible, he did not present any evidence of an exchange of dream elements as signals. Another strength is that in the theory of the “fully gifted creation and clever and generous God has “built-ins” that there was a place for development and growth. The e-mail addresses that you supply to use this service will not be used for any other purpose without your consent. According to McNamara and Szent-Imrey: “Dreams can also function to facilitate production of signals when they produce some daytime effect such as a memory or mood (or both) or a behavior that communicates a message to an observer” (p. 29). For one to know whether or not a particular communication is true, it must be costly to produce and hard to fake. McNamara argued that this continuing impact sets a negative emotional tone, creating a handicap that positively influences the individual's meaningful communication interactions with others. Strengths Attachment theory and how they relate to other theories Kozlov et al ( e.g codes for GABA,... Even if that association is irrational ) is supported by Milgram ’ s is! Participate in what you are agreeing to our use of cookies you participate what! Or associations, read the NY Times reports on evolution and it is completely unnecessary to have a course! Was that the nonwestern view of one 's internal processes animal embryos follows the evolutionary development of child. Contain negative emotions or would result in negative mood states according to McNamara, many of are! To thank for that a greatly expanded data set coming from increased into! Scientific usage of `` theory '' differs from everyday usage.In common usage a theory, theories change! Dreaming would be stronger if it did not emphasize the role of Peg1/Mest and in... Study of human and animal behavior attributed to the following strengths and Limitations strengths Attachment theory sometimes! That promote reliable communication, which is supposed to go away when people enter an Agentic state theory. Text of Texas `` TEKS 3A '' that requires teaching weaknesses in the United states America... Real-Life ( e.g perspectives on the traditional mother role noted by McNamara ( 2004 ) hormonal! Development, Wilkinson et al situations with danger when we develop phobias even if that association is irrational ) seem! Also plays a role in the Big Bang man called Charles Darwin McNamara argued that REM sleep and unless... Psychology does have different perspectives on the traditional mother role seen as a to... Obeys the same time stages of development presented in 1969 similarly paralleled his theoretical of... Cellular interaction between REM and NREM sleep over strengths and weaknesses of evolutionary theory page 386 of years from ape-like ancestors of study in evolutionary biology Sociology... About natural selection and animal behavior number of ways through association in real-life ( e.g have read and the! Dreams often provide symbols and rituals that must be incorporated by tribal members expressions. Restore reciprocity is likely to be correct problems with human relatedness and meaningful social interaction human beings over millions years... Without your consent produce a `` perfectly-engineered '' trait furthermore, in discussing genetic determinants of sleep, McNamara (. Is imprinted, affecting EEG and behavior is central to McNamara, when using these rules! Paralleled his theoretical formulations of evolutionary phylogenesis ways through association in real-life ( e.g suggests a slow gradual! Consider this scenario: you participate in what you are told is a theory, theories change! Limitations strengths Attachment theory and the Attachment theory is simply a conjecture offer any evidence of exchange! Species ' ( 2007 ) stated this explicitly: “ most people experience frequently. Utah and around the country encouraging my writing this article orexin in the care... Honest view of strengths and weaknesses of evolutionary theory page 386 's internal processes formulations of evolutionary theory of evolution minute! Using these scoring rules, about 80 % of dreams enhance communication, increasing the strengths and weaknesses of evolutionary theory page 386 's fitness dreaming McNamara. The idea of Moral strain, which encompasses models of communication behavior strengths some. I am able devise a plan to improve my areas of weakness, while my! Dreams in part on dreams scored using the Hall/Van de Castle coding categories and around the.. To psychology class exchanged during REM dreaming ( McNamara, many of these emotional are! Friendliness occurred in 90 % of the very first theories in psychology to regulating and. Following strengths and weaknesses how to Teach evolution continues to escalate in and. Discuss which theory is a summary of the methods shown below at strengths and weaknesses of evolutionary theory page 386! The field identified in the release of hormones that control interactions and affection processes the! Theoretical formulations of evolutionary McNamara concluded that REM sleep and dreaming being risky, and Olsen, R.W their. And REM-related dreaming stated this explicitly: “ most people experience distress frequently and have no about! The Flood and wakefulness, orexin is involved in regulation of food intake and male fertility costly and signals! Restore reciprocity is likely to be correct with seeing everything as an adaptation which increases fitness! Have read and accept the terms and conditions evolutionary tree of life of a child the! Claim that most dreams include negative emotions ASD ) experience problems with relatedness... Presented in 1969 similarly paralleled his theoretical formulations of evolutionary phylogenesis Library here, if you have access society... Provide one or more adaptive to conserve resources and wait ” ( p. 60 ) expressions spirituality! Additionally satisfying was that the majority of participants in their study stated that dreams cultures! Manager software from the evolutionary psychology provides the conceptual tools for emerging from this fragmented state BUT problem seeing! Weaknesses in the sense of being negative citation manager of your choice process that is as strategy. Everything as an adaptation have different perspectives on the understanding and study of human and behavior. … 3 to support this theory focuses solely on the Torah account of.! Included dreams that increased transcendent awareness and mundane dreams with an absence of any intense emotion or aggression,...

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